Aspirin is often used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and has been studied for its potential to prevent cognitive decline or dementia. The anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin are postulated to decrease neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in the central nervous system. However, as stated in a Journal of the American Geriatrics Society systematic review, there is no current evidence that low-dose aspirin protects against cognitive decline or dementia. The authors caution that present literature is not without bias or other flaws and more reliable information will come from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly Study (ASPREE), an ongoing randomized trial including 19,000 healthy participants aged 65 years and older.
Link to Medscape article (5/2017) and Low-Dose Aspirin Use and Cognitive Function in Older Age: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (4/2017)